Lean Production or Industry 4.0? Let’s do Lean 4.0!

Figure 1: Combining I4.0 tools and Lean methods. Source: 01
  • Automated Guided Vehicles (AGV): an automated guided vehicle (AGV) is a portable robot that follows markers or wires in the floor, or uses vision, magnets, or lasers for navigation. They are most often used in industrial applications to move materials around a manufacturing facility or warehouse. Application of the automatic guided vehicle broadened during the late 20th century.
  • IoT: the Internet of Things (IoT) is the network of devices that contain electronics, software, actuators, and connectivity which allows these things to connect, interact and exchange data. IoT involves extending Internet connectivity beyond standard devices to any range of traditionally non-internet-enabled devices and everyday objects.
  • Discrete Event Simulation (DES): this kind of simulation aims to predict the behaviour of the production system to analyze key metrics like OEE or bottlenecks. The DES simulation allows the optimization of the production system based on real data;
  • Big Data Analytics: planning can be stabilized by using data history in combination with a better understanding of customer needs through an in-depth analysis of the market.
  • Digital Twin: Digital Twin refers to a digital replica of physical assets, processes, systems and devices. It integrates artificial intelligence, machine learning and software analytics with spatial network graphs to create living digital simulation models that update and change as their physical counter parts change. Through simulation methods or virtual real time representation of physical objects, new Kanban loops can be planned with more foresight and seamlessly integrated into the existing production environment;
  • IoT: a constant monitoring of work in process is possible.
  • IoT: as for Kanban, sensors and auto-ID enables the instant localization of objects, big data and data analytics, making easier the creation of VSM;
  • Machine Learning and data analytics support the creation of a value stream design and optimization. An optimized layout can be generated automatically once the requirements are known.
  • Virtual Reality (VR) and Augmented Reality (AR): “Augmented reality (AR) and Virtual Reality (VR) can be considered two sides of the same coin. They both aim to extend the sensorial environment of an individual by mediating reality through technology. The former relies on an alternative setting to experience, while the latter improves existent elements with additional layers of meaning”. (02)
  • With Machine Learning and Data Analytics, correlation between condition parameters and the probability of defaults can be analyzed.
  • AR and VR: VR can be used to train people to perform set up operations on order to shorten the learning curve. AR can support the worker during set up operations by displaying work instructions on a headset;
  • Additive Manufacturing: it is any of various processes in which material is joined or solidified under computer control to create a three-dimensional object, with material being added together (such as liquid molecules or powder grains being fused together). When AM can be used to produce final product, the set-up time can be reduced to a minimum.
  • IoT & AR: they help to assist carrying out 5S more efficiently. RFID ensures the identification and localization of objects which reduces search time. By means of markers like warning signs, AR may also be used for zoning, which means the identification of determined working areas;
  • HMI: Human Machine Interface (HMI) is basically a device, most of the time a touch-screen, which interfaces the machine and the operator. HMI like tablets, smartphones, head-mounted displays and smart watches me be used to show real-time notifications to users;
  • IoT and Auto-ID: they ensure the correct identification and assignment, or the correct picking;
  • Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning: machines can automatically adapt processes to ensure optimal product quality;
  • AR: as stated before, AR can support the worker during set up operations by displaying work instructions on a headset.





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